Tuesday, September 27, 2011

For Both Women And Men, Rates Of Major Depression Are Greatest Among The Separated And Divorced

By Rashar Vick

For both women and men, rates of major depression are highest in between the separated and divorced, and lowest in between the married, whilst remaining often higher for women than for men. The top quality of the marriage, however, may contribute a lot to depression. Lack of an intimate, confiding relationship, in addition to overt marital disputes, have been shown being related to depression in women. In fact, rates of depression were shown being greatest among unhappily married women.

Reproductive Events

Women's reproductive events include the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the postpregnancy period, infertility, menopause, and sometimes, the decision not to obtain children. These events bring fluctuations in mood that for some women include depression. Researchers have confirmed that hormones have an effect on a brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood; a specific biological mechanism explaining hormonal involvement just isn't known, however.

Many women experience specific behavioral and physical changes associated with phases of their menstrual cycles. In some women, these changes are severe, arrive regularly, and include depressed feelings, irritability, as well as other emotional and physical changes. Called premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), the changes normally start right after ovulation and grow to be gradually worse until menstruation starts. Scientists are exploring how the cyclical rise and fall of estrogen along with other hormones may perhaps affect the brain chemistry that's associated with depressive illness.

Postpartum mood changes can number from transient "blues" right away right after childbirth to an episode of major depression to severe, incapacitating, psychotic depression. Studies suggest that women who experience major depression after childbirth extremely always have had prior depressive episodes even though they may perhaps not have been diagnosed and treated.

Pregnancy (if it is desired) seldom contributes to depression, and having an abortion doesn't glimpse to bring about a higher incidence of depression. Women with infertility problems might be subject to extreme anxiety or sadness, even though it's unclear if this contributes to a higher rate of depressive illness. In addition, motherhood might be a time of heightened risk for depression due to the stress and demands it imposes.

Menopause, in general, isn't associated with an elevated risk of depression. In fact, though once regarded as a certain disorder, search has shown that depressive illness at menopause is no various than at other ages. The women additional vulnerable to change-of-life depression are those people using a history of past depressive episodes.

Specific Cultural Considerations

As for depression in general, the prevalence rate of depression in African American and Hispanic women remains about twice that of men. There's some indication, however, that major depression and dysthymia could be diagnosed less generally in African American and slightly more typically in Hispanic than in Caucasian women. Prevalence facts for other racial and ethnic groups is not definitive.

Possible differences in symptom presentation may well affect the way depression is identified and diagnosed between minorities. For example, African People are more almost certainly to report somatic symptoms, for example appetite change and entire body aches and pains. In addition, individuals from numerous cultural backgrounds may possibly view depressive symptoms in a variety of ways. This sort of reasons need to be considered once working with women from special populations.


Studies show that women molested as children are more almost certainly to get clinical depression at some time in their lives than those without such history. In addition, many studies show a greater incidence of depression between women who had been raped as adolescents or adults. Since additional women than men had been sexually abused as children, these findings are relevant. Women who experience other normally occurring forms of abuse, including physical abuse and sexual harassment on the job, also may well experience higher rates of depression. Abuse may cause depression by fostering low self-esteem, a sense of helplessness, self-blame, and social isolation. There is certainly biological and environmental risk causes for depression resulting from growing up inside a dysfunctional family. At present, more look for is required to understand regardless of whether victimization is connected in particular to depression.


Women and youngsters represent seventy-five percent in the U.S. population regarded poor. Low economic status brings with it quite a few stresses, including isolation, uncertainty, frequent unfavorable events, and poor access to helpful resources. Sadness and low morale are more popular among persons with low incomes and people lacking social supports. But research has not yet established whether depressive illnesses are much more prevalent between individuals facing environmental stressors such as these. Depression in Later Adulthood

At one time, it was commonly thought that women were in particular vulnerable to depression when their little ones left home and they had been confronted with "empty nest syndrome" and experienced a profound loss of functionality and identity. However, studies show no enhance in depressive illness in between women at this stage of life.

As with younger age groups, a lot more elderly women than men suffer from depressive illness. Similarly, for all age groups, being unmarried (which includes widowhood) can also be a risk thing for depression. Most important, depression should not be dismissed like a regular consequence of the physical, social, and economic problems of later life. In fact, studies show that most older persons think satisfied with their lives.

About 800,000 persons are widowed each year. Most of them are older, female, and experience varying degrees of depressive symptomatology. Most don't need formal treatment, but people who are moderately or severely sad glimpse to benefit from self-help groups or numerous psychosocial treatments. However, a third of widows/widowers do meet criteria for major depressive episode within the very first month following the death, and half of these remain clinically depressed 1 year later. These depressions respond to regular antidepressant treatments, whilst research on after to begin treatment or how medications need to be combined with psychosocial treatments is even now in its early stages.

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